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Table 4 Comparison of energy flow in 33-bus AC/DC hybrid distribution Micro-grid under standalone mode of REDG

From: Butterfly optimizer-assisted optimal integration of REDG units in hybrid AC/DC distribution micro-grids based on minimum operational area

Zone (grid type) Zone 1 (AC grid) Zone 2 (DC grid) Zone 3 (DC grid)
Method MNMCS BOA MNMCS BOA MNMCS BOA
Total load (kWh) 41,280 41,280 25,800 25,800 22,080 22,080
REDG energy generated (kWh) - 32,043.6 32,088 27,468 27,192
Excess energy to AC grid (kWh) - 8200.56 6288 5123.28 5112
Substation energy (kWh) 31,826.16 30,528 - -
Minimum voltage @ bus (p.u) 0.9823 @25 0.9831 @25 0.9706 @18 1.0000 @7 0.9840 @33 1.0000 @26
Maximum voltage @ bus (p.u) 1.0000 @1 1.0000 @1 1.0000 @7 1.0056 @14 1.0000 @26 1.0063 @30
Energy loss (kWh) 1085.52 648     
Loss reduction 67.64% 80%     
Coal consumption (ton) 22.28 19.36     
CO2 emission (ton) 18.97 16.19     
Energy-saving from substation 65.60% 67.58%