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Table 4 Comparison of energy flow in 33-bus AC/DC hybrid distribution Micro-grid under standalone mode of REDG

From: Butterfly optimizer-assisted optimal integration of REDG units in hybrid AC/DC distribution micro-grids based on minimum operational area

Zone (grid type)

Zone 1 (AC grid)

Zone 2 (DC grid)

Zone 3 (DC grid)

Method

MNMCS

BOA

MNMCS

BOA

MNMCS

BOA

Total load (kWh)

41,280

41,280

25,800

25,800

22,080

22,080

REDG energy generated (kWh)

-

32,043.6

32,088

27,468

27,192

Excess energy to AC grid (kWh)

-

8200.56

6288

5123.28

5112

Substation energy (kWh)

31,826.16

30,528

-

-

Minimum voltage @ bus (p.u)

0.9823 @25

0.9831 @25

0.9706 @18

1.0000 @7

0.9840 @33

1.0000 @26

Maximum voltage @ bus (p.u)

1.0000 @1

1.0000 @1

1.0000 @7

1.0056 @14

1.0000 @26

1.0063 @30

Energy loss (kWh)

1085.52

648

    

Loss reduction

67.64%

80%

    

Coal consumption (ton)

22.28

19.36

    

CO2 emission (ton)

18.97

16.19

    

Energy-saving from substation

65.60%

67.58%