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Table 3 Summary of optimal allocation of REDG units in 33-bus AC/DC hybrid distribution micro-grid results with and without considering HPC losses

From: Butterfly optimizer-assisted optimal integration of REDG units in hybrid AC/DC distribution micro-grids based on minimum operational area

Parameter Without HPC losses (WOHPCL) With HPC losses (WHPCL)
Base Case NM [27] PSO [22] CS [27] HNMCS [27] BOA CASE-1 BOA CASE-2 Base Case BOA CASE-2
REDG@7 REDG@26 REDG@7 REDG@26 REDG@7 REDG@26 REDG@7 REDG@26 REDG@7 REDG@26 REDG@13 REDG@30 REDG@12 REDG@30
Solar-PV optimal area (m2)   5278.56 1278.56 5000.83 4295.87 2747.71 4583.19 2191.53 2675.18 2332.7 1361 1678 1507.8   895.3438 664.5533
Solar-PV optimal power required (kW)   639.76 156.80 606.10 520.66 333.02 555.48 265.61 324.23 283 165 203 183   108.5157 80.5439
FC optimal area (m2)   306.36 584.93 301.82 261.18 414.73 246.72 442.45 342.32 435.4 408.1 265.4 392.4   355.4116 395.3083
FC optimal power required (kW)   739.30 1416.20 730.74 632.34 1004.11 597.33 1071.22 828.81 1054 988 643 950   860.4901 957.0845
Total area required (m2)   7462.57   9859.70   7992.35   5651.49   4537.2   3843.6    2310.6  
Total power loss (kW) 139.7 48.33   47.52   46.07   46.07   46.0532   26.8325   171.7 27.3390  
Power loss reduction (%)   65.45   66.0   67.0   67.07   67.05   80.80     
Convergence time (s)   1.06   12.61   9.22   8.86   7.05   8.27    7.14 8.54
Number of PV panels   320 77 303 260 167 278 133 163 142 83 102 92   54 40
Number of FC   29 56 29 25 39 23 43 33 42 39 26 38   34 38
  1. Italics values are represents better values