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Table 5 PID controller parameters value of a multi-area multi-unit power system (test system 2)

From: Combined load frequency and terminal voltage control of power systems using moth flame optimization algorithm

ControllersThermalHydroAVR loop
\(K_{P}\)\(K_{I}\)\(K_{D}\)\(K_{P}\)\(K_{I}\)\(K_{D}\)\(K_{P}\)\(K_{I}\)\(K_{D}\)
Area 1
 ZN-tuned PID [39]0.95221.360.1670.95221.360.16710.250.28
 SA PID(ISE) [39]5.19.09994.15.00258.90034.099510.250.28
 MFO PID(ISE)9.99699.99140.99999.91010.00590.355660.99990.99890.9997
 MFO PID (ITAE)8.50579.99981.73399.99971.420700.99790.99940.2294
 MFO FOPID (ITAE)8.51379.99952.54779.99999.99988.708910.87320.2241
\(\lambda = 0. 9 9 9 9\)\(\mu = 0. 9 9 9 4\)\(\lambda = 0. 5 9 2 5\)\(\mu = 0. 6 5 9 4\)\(\lambda = 0. 9 9 9 6\)\(\mu = 0. 7 5 7 4\)
Area 2
 ZN-tuned PID [39]0.95221.360.1670.95221.360.16710.250.28
 SA PID(ISE) [39]5.00989.07253.9224.90089.09944.08710.250.28
 MFO PID(ISE)9.99959.98797.38439.972808.79540.99860.99950.9999
 MFO PID (ITAE)9.99999.99964.14839.99860.79396.68820.99980.99960.2499
 MFO FOPID (ITAE)9.39219.99266.44570.00019.99991.35760.23450.99990.9998
\(\lambda = 0. 9 9 9 3\)\(\mu = 0. 7 7 5 2\)\(\lambda = 0. 1 0 9 7\)\(\mu = 0. 8 3 8 6\)\(\lambda = 0. 9 9 9 9\)\(\mu = 0. 0 9 1 5\)