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Table 7 Comparison convergence time (s) for three algorithms

From: Performance and security enhancement using generalized optimal unified power flow controller under contingency conditions and renewable energy penetrations

Line contingency Convergence time (s)
BAT WOA WO-BAT
16.864 14.091 11.170
38–49 17.196 14.573 13.410
54–55 17.471 15.884 13.741
30–31 18.716 16.467 12.540
37–38 17.823 15.482 11.112
53–54 17.485 16.214 12.404
50–51 17.514 16.605 10.707
46–47 17.962 15.322 13.750
41–42 18.921 16.529 13.829
18–19 18.837 17.815 12.737
25–30 16.653 15.044 11.646