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Table 3 Percentage forecast errors associated with the various models, for energy data for a laptop

From: Improvement of Grey System Model using Particle Swarm Optimization

  PSO-GM(1,1) GM(1,1) Method in [18] Method in [19]
  – 0.1198 2.5480 – 5.3212 4.6466
  0.2862 1.8137 – 0.5175 3.9284
  0.8785 1.2619 4.2494 3.3879
  – 1.4172 – 2.2005 6.1185 0
MAPE  0.6754 1.9560 4.0516 2.9907