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Table 2 Percentage prediction errors for PSO-GM(1,1) and GM(1,1) for a monotonic decreasing data

From: Improvement of Grey System Model using Particle Swarm Optimization

  PSO-GM(1,1) GM(1,1)
  0 11.553
  0.092 4.617
  – 0.251 – 3.015
  0 – 10.884
  0 – 20.370
  0 – 30.000
MAPE  0.057 13.407