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Table 1 Percentage prediction errors for PSO-GM(1,1) and GM(1,1) for a monotonic increasing data

From: Improvement of Grey System Model using Particle Swarm Optimization

  PSO-GM(1,1) GM(1,1)
  0.000 4.580
  – 0.007 11.544
  – 0.005 17.998
  – 0.008 23.981
  – 0.010 29.528
  – 0.013 34.670
MAPE  0.007 20.383