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Table 7 Comparison of energy flow in 69-bus AC/DC hybrid distribution micro-grid under standalone mode of REDG

From: Butterfly optimizer-assisted optimal integration of REDG units in hybrid AC/DC distribution micro-grids based on minimum operational area

Zone (grid type) Zone 1 (AC grid) Zone 2 (DC grid) Zone 3 (DC grid) Zone 4 (DC grid)
Method HNMCS BOA HNMCS BOA HNMCS BOA HNMCS BOA
Total load (kWh) 25,848.96 25,848.96 21,998.4 21,998.4 41,202 41,202 2196 2196
REDG energy generated (kWh)   24,850.8 11,392 39,769.68 39,408 6852.24 10,824
Excess energy to AC grid (kWh)   2592.48 4655.52 8601
Substation energy (kWh) 20,693.04 17,227.32   1452.96   
Minimum voltage @ bus (p.u) 0.9942 @50 0.9943 @50 0.9996 @52 0.9969 @68 0.9970 @53 1.0000 @53 0.9992 @35 0.9992 @35
Maximum voltage @ bus (p.u) 1.0000 @1 1.0000 @1, 36 1.0169 @15 1.0009 @17 1.0000 @61 1.0005 @62 1.0000 @28 1.0000 @28
Energy loss (kWh) 341.04 112       
Loss reduction % 90.15 97.55       
Coal consumption (ton) 15.5 12.07       
CO2 emission (ton) 13.2 10.21       
Energy-saving from substation 76.61% 80.54%