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Table 5 Optimal allocation of REDG units in 69-bus AC/DC hybrid distribution micro-grid using BO algorithm with and without considering HPC losses

From: Butterfly optimizer-assisted optimal integration of REDG units in hybrid AC/DC distribution micro-grids based on minimum operational area

Parameter Without HPC losses With HPC losses
Base case BOA CASE-1 BOA CASE-2 Base case BOA CASE-2
REDG@8 REDG@28 REDG@61 REDG@18 REDG@61 REDG@54 REDG@19 REDG@61 REDG@54
Solar-PV optimal area (m2)   126.04 64.82 26.72 31.971 66.276 199.81   56.83 196.46 36.011
Solar-PV optimal power required (kW)   15 8 3 3.8749 8.0326 24.217   6.8886 23.811 4.3645
FC optimal area (m2)   419.95 114.24 683.79 194.47 675.02 176.65   208.7 667.21 136.6
FC optimal power required (kW)   1017 277 1656 470.83 1634.3 427.68   505.28 1615.4 330.72
Total area required (m2)   1361.8    1344.2     1301.8   
Total power loss (kW) 144.31 11.5074    4.658    227.4 5.5461   
Power loss reduction (%)   92.05    98.2     97.55   
Number of PV panels   8 4 2 8 4 2   4 12 3
Number of FC   40 11 66 40 11 66   20 64 13