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Table 6 Sensitivity analysis with proposed hybrid DE-PS optimized FOPID controller in parallel AC-DC link

From: Comparative performance analysis of hybrid differential evolution and pattern search technique for frequency control of the electric power system

Parameters
variations
% change Ts ( 2% band) Peak overshoot (× 10–3) Peak undershoot (× 10–3) ITAE
∆ F1 ∆ F2 ∆ PTie ∆ F1 ∆ F2 ∆ PTie ∆ F1 ∆ F2 ∆ PTie
Nominal 3.72 4.03 5.79 0.5 1.1 1.2 − 12.0 − 13.3 − 0.2 0.2156
Loading
conditions
 + 25 3.88 4.05 5.95 0.4 1.0 1.2 − 12.0 − 13.2 − 0.2 0.2800
− 25 3.63 4.70 5.00 0.5 1.1 1.2 − 12.1 − 13.3 − 0.2 0.2667
TG  + 25 3.82 3.98 5.65 0.7 1.0 1.3 − 12.1 − 13.4 − 0.2 0.2246
− 25 3.64 4.72 5.01 0.4 1.1 1.2 − 11.8 − 13.1 − 0.2 0.2660
TT  + 25 4.52 4.62 5.03 1.3 1.2 1.3 − 12.3 − 13.5 − 0.2 0.2663
− 25 3.74 4.00 5.08 0.4 1.0 1.2 − 11.6 − 13.0 − 0.2 0.2146
TRH  + 25 3.89 4.96 5.92 0.3 0.9 1.2 − 12.0 − 13.2 − 0.2 0.2756
− 25 3.06 4.69 5.31 0.7 0.7 1.2 − 12.1 − 13.3 − 0.2 0.2589
TCD  + 25 3.89 5.04 5.72 0.5 0.9 1.2 − 12.0 − 13.3 − 0.2 0.2925
− 25 3.62 5.11 5.35 0.5 0.9 1.3 − 12.0 − 13.3 − 0.2 0.2797
T12  + 25 4.03 4.64 4.87 0.4 0.9 1.3 − 12.1 − 13.2 − 0.2 0.2560
− 25 3.85 4.08 5.22 0.6 1.1 1.1 − 11.9 − 13.4 − 0.3 0.2453